Sunday, April 15, 2007

Some Tips on Not Drowning

There are not many people in Thailand like this Aussie surf-lifesaver to haul you out if you get into trouble. Tezza, a more than capable swimmer and surfer, has been rescued by sweeties like this 273 times - image

Most tourist drownings in Thailand involve people caught in RIP CURRENTS on popular beaches. Phuket and big Ko Chang have the worst records, but rip currents can occur anywhere there is a surf running. All that water heading beachwards has to get back out to sea somehow, and that is the rip current.
Waves in Thailand are more a wet season thing, during and after periods of prolonged strong winds. Waves are absent to very small 99% of dry season.
Inexperienced people finding themselves shooting out to sea in a rip current try to swim against it, get exhausted, take in water, and drown.

THIS SHOULD NEVER HAPPEN! Anyone who can merely tread water, let alone swim, should never drown in a rip.

Surfers use rips all the time to take them “out the back” to the take-off zone. They don’t even have to swim or paddle their boards. I suggest poor swimmers do exactly the same - go with the flow.
ALL rips dissipate in the deeper water just behind the wave breaking zone. They have done their job, and do not go further. The longest rip I have ever seen went 400 meters from the shore in a HUGE SURF, much bigger than anything Thailand gets. Most rips last for 100-150m. Once you are out in the calmer water past the break zone, tread water, put up your hand and wait for someone with a longtail to pick you up.

All that water coming in on waves has got to get out again. Waves break in the shallower water over sand bars. Rips form in the deeper channels between sandbars. Great image from St Johns County, Florida. A full sized version can be seen here.

Thorntree poster ALLY sent me this pic of a rip at Palm Beach in Sydney. Note how small the surf is. This would be a pretty gentle rip but could still give poor and average swimmers a tough time. Note too how easy it would be to wander off the sand-bar into the deeper channel, not too pleasant for a non swimmer. Note how the rip dissipates "out the back" (image Rob Brander)

Treading water is a minimal effort activity, something the average person could do for maybe 24 hours in Thailand before dehydration becomes a problem (the water is warm so hypothermia is not a short or medium term problem)*.
Hell, even TT Thailand’s svelte-challenged, lethargy-enhanced mr. nasty and big-time plagiarist of this blog, Singapore Slim (all names changed to protect the guilty) would probably last 'til dinner time, when the aroma of chips and gravy would force a do-or-die dash for the shore.

*I've since been told that hypothermia will eventually set in in any water below body temperature - which all ocean water is. But it will take many hours in tropical water.

DON’T TRY TO SWIM AGAINST THE RIP. A world champion will go backwards against a strong rip. All but very fit swimmers will become exhausted swimming against even gentle rips.

DON’T WORRY ABOUT SHARKS - tens of thousands of surfers and ocean swimmers in Australia and other much sharkier places than Thailand individually spend hundreds of hours yearly swimming and surfing without worries. Hell, I’ve never heard of a shark attack in Thailand, except in that heap of nonsense book by Alex Garland. So you can float around out the back for hours and not give the nibblers a thought.

DON’T WORRY ABOUT UNDERTOWS - there is no such thing as a rip which will drag you under, let alone keep you under.

DON’T WORRY ABOUT WAVES BREAKING ON YOUR HEAD - rip currents move out thru the deeper channels between sandbars - waves break in shallow water (largely on the sandbars) so these deeper channels often have no waves or few waves. If one does come when you are in the rip, take a breath, dive down or duck your head. You are gonna pop up on the other side - that breath guarantees it.

Surf-lifesavers in Australia say if you are caught in a rip, SWIM SIDEWAYS TO THE RIP (parallel to the beach). Even big rips are never more than about 30m across, so you will soon move out of the current and hopefully into the shallow water of the sandbar where you can stand**.
I think this is good advice for people who are good swimmers, not exhausted and who start swimming sideways immediately. Wait too long and you are likely to end up on the sandbar but in deeper water, unable to stand up, more exhausted by the swim and with big waves breaking on your head, which can be pretty frightening for the inexperienced. I reckon it is much cooler to allow the rip to take you seaward, then float around out the back waiting for someone to pick you up. It’s nice out there.

*Look for the sections where no waves or fewer waves are breaking (note what a trap this is for the inexperienced: “this looks safe, NO WAVES, I’ll swim here”
*Big rips often scour sand as they go and look sandy.
*When the wind is blowing in the opposite direction, the surface of the rip is often disturbed and choppy looking.
Note however, many rips are very difficult to spot from beach or water level.

Ally also sent this beach-level pic of a small rip, with the label: "DON'T SWIM BETWEEN THE RED POINTERS!" Once again a pretty small surf. Note how waves are not breaking in the channel (don't know origin of image).

UPDATE - April 2010. I was pleased to see about a dozen of these signs posted on big Ko Chang's White Sand Beach on my recent revisit. That image on left looks familiar - looks like Ally sent it to them too.

A bigger rip at Monterey in California. Once again, don't swim where the waves aint breaking. Be aware however that at low tide or in big surf, waves CAN break in the channel, making rips difficult to spot (image NOAA)


*The bigger the surf, the stronger the rip - there is more water to move back out to sea.
*Rips are strongest at low tide when all that water has to move through a shallower channel; and there is a greater quantity of water to move out because the waves breaking on the shallower sandbars tend to be bigger and more frequent.
*At the ends of beaches there is usually a rip running along at least one of the headlands, maybe both if the swell is coming in exactly front-on to the beach (most swell has a slightly oblique angle of approach).
*A longish beach like Patong or Karon typically has more than a half dozen sandbars separated by channels containing rip currents if surf is running.
*Rips are fed by FEEDER CURRENTS, which run parallel to the beach just off the sand, in the (usually small) channel between the sandbar and the beach. These feeders get stronger as they approach the big channel between the sandbars, where they turn right angles and head out to sea as a full blown rip. Sometimes FEEDER CURRENTS are strong enough towards their ends to drag non/poor swimmers sideways into the rip proper.

Don’t confuse FEEDER CURRENTS with CROSS DRAG and TIDAL CURRENTS which operate further from the beach.

The old swim sideways trick. Note the feeder currents, which can extend out of image in front of the sandbar (image HowStuffWorks)

Most waves approach the beach at a slightly oblique angle - ie the wave front is not exactly parallel with the beach. This sets up a sideways current (parallel to the beach) known as the LONGSHORE CURRENT, LONGSHORE DRIFT or colloquially, SIDE DRAG, which tends to be located out near the break zone.

Usually this current is not strong, and gives no problems, but if the swell approaches at a bigger angle to the beach and is big in size, it can be powerful enough to drag swimmers sideways off the sand-bar, and into the rip current in the adjacent channel. It can also be powerful enough to drag the swimmer thru the rip-current and continue on its merry way down the beach.
No problems, just make sure you are not still in the rip-current channel (wait 'til the waves are biggest) and then swim towards shore. The waves will help wash you in.
If you are a poor swimmer and don’t like the idea of getting pounded by breaking waves, just cruise on down the beach and wait for someone to haul you out with a boat. Or swim out to sea a bit, you will move out of the side drag and stay in the one spot.
If you are a NON SWIMMER and get swept sideways off the sandbar, you are gunna drown. But you should have been nowhere near the break zone, which is usually a fair way from shore. Non swimmers should never go in more than thigh deep in any surf, and even then should be aware of the FEEDER CURRENTS mentioned before.

UPDATE NOV 2011 - the Sydney Morning Herald presented some recent research findings by Dr Rob Brander of the University of NSW on rips. Part of his experiments involved depositing purple die or oranges into rips to see what happened.
SMH shot of Brander's purple die experiment at Tamarama Beach which is next south of Bondi in Sydney. Interestingly he found that in many cases the die or oranges actually did a circular route and ended up back on the beach. This can be seen above; but only part of the die is getting back on the right hand side - makes sense to me, the die is being washed in where part of the rip's outer diffusion takes it into the wave zone. But this requires the rip to start diffusing before it gets past the wave zone, whereas prior wisdom says all rips go slightly further out to sea.
Brander concludes that whether the rip is circular or goes slightly past the wave zone, all but strong swimmers should go with the flow. It is only the latter who should follow Aussie life-savers' advice and swim sideways.
Dude has written a book - Dr Rip's Essential Beach Book by Rob Brander UNSW Press.

The SMH also printed this diagram of different types of rips, presumably from Brander's book. The right hand one is a bit scary - only very capable swimmers should go into the water in such conditions. Image can be clicked to expand - may take a while if your connection is as slow as mine.

Because strong winds in Thailand’s wet season come from the western quadrant, it is usually the WESTWARD FACING BEACHES where the swell can get up, creating sizable surf and dangerous currents.
So unless you are an expert at swimming in big surf, you should avoid such conditions. If you want to cool down, don’t go out more than thigh deep (I’ve found it difficult to walk against a strong rip or side drag in even waist deep water. Sometimes it can be difficult to even stay on your feet).
Good news is that often winds are benign in wet season and the swell stays very small. It's pretty safe to swim on these westward facing beaches in these conditions, although in any surf there will be some type of outward current. There can also be the less troublesome TIDAL CURRENTS I describe later, particularly along any fringing reef and headland. So still be aware.

Another option is to seek an island with EASTERN FACING BEACHES. These beaches are sheltered from the western winds and swell of wet season. Unfortunately, more beaches in the popular Andaman face WEST than east - eg all the good beaches on Phuket, Lanta, Jum. There are nice eastern facing beaches on Phi Phi, Ko Ngai, Ko Kradan, Ko Bulon Lae, Ko Taratao, Ko Lipe.
Away from the Andaman, there are nice eastern facing beaches on Phangan**, Samui**, Tao**, and Samet. The northern beaches at Mak and Ko Whai near big Chang are also pretty sheltered in wet season.
Sadly all of big Chang’s good beaches face west into the wind and swell.

Eastern facing beach areas can be subject to TIDAL CURRENTS, described below.

** ThornTree poster dearsirsam also points out that when the north-east monsoon winds get up on island like Samui, Phangan and Tao, so too does the swell, and you can get rip-currents at exposed beaches. Fortunately in my experience this does not happen too often, mainly in the months Oct thru Dec, but be aware. People have drowned at Chaweng, Thong Nai Pan and Hat Rin. And not just at blitzed party times for the last place.

When the tide rises and falls, water moving into and out of narrow inlets and passages between islands, and over shallow reefs, result in TIDAL CURRENTS. These tend to be strongest mid-tide and usually run parallel to shore.
In places with HUGE tides, they can be awesome, running at 30km+, with associated vortexes (whirlpools) and standing waves of 2m where strong winds blow against them.

When the wind blows against tidal currents the surface gets chopped up. Stong winds and fast currents can create large standing waves in very deep water. Added chaos can result when 2 tidal currents moving around opposite sides of an island meet, as in this shot (image Affinity Cruises)

In Thailand, the tidal range is not huge and so these currents are not all that strong - as a matter of fact they are good for a no-effort (no need to swim or kick) drift along the edge of a fringing reef checking the coral and fish. When you get tired of that, you swim into the beach, walk back up to the starting point, and repeat as needed.
However, I have seen a few Thai tidal currents which would be difficult for a poorer swimmer to swim against. A Brit guy once told me he found himself being carried along the headland at the south of Hat Rin and had a hell of a time getting back to the beach. At one stage he thought he would not make it.
I reckon poor swimmers should not try. Swim in to the rocks and rock-hop back. If this looks too difficult (sometimes hauling yourself out of the water in rocky areas is near impossible) swim OUT into deeper water. The tidal currents do not run here (unless you are in a gap between islands, at the mouth of a bay or similar). Then swim back to the beach in stages, with periodic tread-water rests when needed. Or wait for someone with a boat.

A small tidal rip as the tide moves out between very shallow sand bars. Note how it dissipates once in deeper water (image OCEAN.COM- Dennis Decker)


Just read a newpaper article that said latest research indicates closed chest compression is as effective as CPR (which incorporates "kiss of life" resussitation with closed chest compression) in reviving people dragged from the surf.

Now the former is so much simpler - just compress the rib-cage with a two handed palms push (actually cross your hands at the fingers and push down with the heels of your palms on the sternum part of the rib cage - push yourself there to feel the movement) at about the same rate as breathing. With infants use a two-fingered compression.
Good idea to make sure the breathing passages are unblocked first - lay patient on side and turn head down (which allows swallowed water to drain - if you bend legs at knees it will stop them rolling back or further) and manually clear mouth - check for swallowed tongue although this apparently is not as common as most think.
Once this is done roll patient on to back and start chest compressions. Of course if you know CPR or have someone else who can co-ordinate kiss of life with your chest compressions you aint gonna do any harm.

Okay, I'm doing all this from memory. Ages since I practised. Some of you dudes may see mistakes or know better methods. Thing is the article said in 70% of cases people DO NOTHING. Hell, if it was me I'd want people to TRY SOMETHING.

BREAKING NEWS - just had drawn to my attention this good site with lotsa pix, info and a video on rips.


After all this depressing stuff about drowning it’s time for some LIGHT RELIEF, folks:

- **A few years back I saw a girl with the smallest bikini in the world enter the water in what I considered a risky spot at one of my local beaches. Sure enough, she got caught in a rip. She stuck her hand high in the air which is the signal for help in Australian surf.
I just had to haul this lady out personally. Trouble is a skin-diver resting on the adjacent headland rocks figured the same thing. BIG RACE - he had the fins for speed, I had the rip for velocity. I was winning, and only 15 meters from the girl, when suddenly she stood up and walked away! Wise girl had done the sideways-swim trick onto a shallow sand-bar.
- Another time I was board-riding Queensland’s Alexander Bay in a big nasty surf. Alexander Bay is popular with surfers and NUDISTS. A girl got caught in a rip and as I paddled across my heart leapt - she was totally gorgeous and would soon be spread-eagled on my board!
She also turned out to be the only girl on the beach wearing swimmers.

Stone the crows trendsetters, sometimes I think Hui, the God of Surf, has a personal grudge against me. And not only in the surf.

Like the time I was doing 130 on the Coolangatta by-pass and the board-racks, containing my full quiver of 5 boards, flew off the roof and was run-over by a tour bus.
Or when I gave a lift from Byron Bay to Sydney to a posse of surfer-groupies who had run out of money to get home. Going thru Ballina, they stuck their cute bare arses out the windows at a couple of cops doing roadside radar duty. The cops radioed their mates down the road, who pulled me over, gave the girls a lecture and me 5 defect notices for the tezza-waggon. Jeez, justice works in strange ways. Gratuitous shot of surfer-groupie's best asset (image ASL)

Oh yeah, another incident which now makes me smile but wasn’t all that funny in the execution, was the rescue of Johnathon Livingston Seagull from a certain watery death. You can read abt that at the end of my Ko Libong info thingy on this site.

If you have any questions, please ask them in THE FORUM rather than below. I don't get a chance to check all threads daily, but unless I'm travelling I'll try to monitor THE FORUM regularly.


Marcia said...

Stumbled on this blog, Tezza, and remembered seeing some posting of yours on LP or TF or someplace. Glad I stopped to take a look. Very nice exposition of rips. We've just had 4 drownings on Phuket beaches in the past week and a half, and surely this is part of the answer to WHY? (That and people ignoring red flags.)

Cookie said...

Read up on the Heimlich maneouvre for drowning victims. You need to push the water out of the lungs first or CPR would be useless.

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